- The existence of evil is an argument for theism based on the moral argument. If we concede that evil is in fact real (not just unpleasant) then theism is true.
- This argues not solely for theism, but good theism, ie. a good God. This is because evil does not exist of itself, it is parasitic; evil is a perversion of good.
- Therefore the existence of evil raises the question of why would a good God allow evil. The existence of evil does not raise the question of God's existence; rather his existence is proven by the existence of evil.
Friday, 29 January 2021
Wednesday, 27 January 2021
The question is actually quite a complex one. So I will first make the case for monogamy followed by the case for polygamy.
When asked about divorce Jesus points to creation (Mat 19). His reference to God making man and woman is foundational to all questions of marriage and relationship.
So God created man in his own image,and
in the image of God he created him;
male and female he created them. (Gen 1:27)
Then the Lord God said, “It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him a helper fit for him.” ...So the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and while he slept took one of his ribs and closed up its place with flesh. And the rib that the Lord God had taken from the man he made into a woman and brought her to the man. Then the man said,Jesus specifically quotes that God made male and female, that the man is to leave his parents and that they are to be one flesh. There is much that can be taken from these passages in Genesis.
“This at last is bone of my bonesTherefore a man shall leave his father and his mother and hold fast to his wife, and they shall become one flesh. And the man and his wife were both naked and were not ashamed. (Gen 2:18,21-25)
and flesh of my flesh;
she shall be called Woman,
because she was taken out of Man.”
- Marriage is instituted by God
- Marriage is to be between a male and a female
- Marriage is to be between 2 people
- Marriage addresses the problem of being alone
- God made the man before the woman (leadership, 1Ti 2:13)
- God made the woman from the man's side (joint dominion, Gen 1)
- The nuclear family is primary, and the marriage covenant supersedes filial bonds
- Marriage is permanent
- Becoming one flesh through coitus is part of marriage
- Becoming united in relationship is fundamental to marriage
For our purposes here we see that marriage is between 2 people which argues that monogamy is the antelapsarian situation. Polygamy is only potentially permissible for fallen man.
The first mention of polygamy is that of Lamech. It is incidental to the narrative. Lamech kills a man and pronounces vengeance for himself. He does so in the pattern of God protecting Cain. Cain rightly feared for his life as he had murdered his brother. God put a mark or sign on Cain to let men know that God would take vengeance seven-fold if they killed Cain. Lamech, a descendant of Cain, in his pride claimed vengeance 77-fold were any man to kill him for murdering another. It is mentioned that Lamech had 2 wives. It is difficult to make much of this other than noting that Lamech was otherwise a wicked man.
There are several examples of multiple wives throughout Scripture. It is often claimed that these are universally negative examples which point to polygamy being a bad institution. Some of the examples are indeed negative but it is not clear that they all are. Moreover, negative examples may be more likely to be identified because of strife. Nevertheless, the stories of Sarah and Hagar, of Rachel and Leah, of Peninnah and Hannah, warrant careful consideration.
Polygamists mentioned in Scripture include: Abijah, Abraham, Ahab, Ahasuerus, Ashur, Belshazzar, Benhadad, Caleb, David, Eliphaz, Elkanah, Esau, Ezra, Gideon, Jacob, Jehoiachin, Jehoram, Jerahmeel, Joash, Lamech, Machir, Manasseh, Mered, Moses, Nahor, Rehoboam, Saul, Shaharaim, Simeon, Solomon, Zedekiah.
Additional to the implications of the creation narrative, we have God warning kings against multiplying wives excessively (Deu 17:17). Solomon being the paragon who both disregarded this command to an extreme measure, and who was drawn away after several foreign gods just as was warned.
Polygamy therefore was never intended to exist before the Fall and has had negative implications on many occasions. Even so, the Bible does not treat it universally as wrong. It is not necessarily immoral.
The Levirate marriage is mentioned in the Mosiac Law although it antedates the Law: note the case of Tamar. The Law states,
If brothers dwell together, and one of them dies and has no son, the wife of the dead man shall not be married outside the family to a stranger. Her husband's brother shall go in to her and take her as his wife and perform the duty of a husband's brother to her. And the first son whom she bears shall succeed to the name of his dead brother, that his name may not be blotted out of Israel. (Deu 25:)Here the levirate marriage is commanded of a brother if his sister-in-law becomes a childless widow. That is, a man is told that the right thing to do in such a situation is to take a second wife. The reason being to provide children to his brother's widow and they will be counted as his brother's offspring. So the principle one can derive from this passage is that taking a second wife can, in at least one situation, be an act of mercy. It is the right thing to do. It is important to note that this situation may arise in a fallen world, but was not relevant in the antelapsian world.
Tuesday, 26 January 2021
I don't think this is a strong case against the inerrantist position for 2 reasons.
- It is possible that recensions are also inerrant; and
- The inerrantist appeal to the autographs is a minor feature of their position.
The larger issue here is that the appeal to autographs is not the focus of inerrancy. Kelly seems to recognise this as he states,
This appeal to the autographs helps to escape the obvious error that occurred during transmission as well as the complexity behind identifying which textual tradition is the inerrant one.The focus of inerrancy is that the Bible is without error of fact, not just doctrine. The Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy (which I am comfortable with) affirms this. There are several articles to explain what is meant by this affirmation but some of these qualifiers mean that inerrantists are not compelled to defend pseudo-errors. One of the qualifiers is that the claim of inerrancy only applies to original wording of the manuscripts. Article 10 states,
We affirm that inspiration, strictly speaking, applies only to the autographic text of Scripture, which in the providence of God can be ascertained from available manuscripts with great accuracy. We further affirm that copies and translations of Scripture are the Word of God to the extent that they faithfully represent the original.While Kelly is addressing text-types (or rather, the possibility of non-unique sources, which is within the larger concept of text-type veracity), the bigger issue for inerrancy is usually one of translation. In practice, appeal is made to the Bible in one's own language. I speak neither Hebrew nor Greek so my appeals must be to the English Bible. And I am confident that Bibles in other languages are accurate enough for inerrancy apologists of foreign speech. It is not that inerrantists continually appeal to the non-extant texts, rather it is to dismiss the claims of error that only exist as result of errant transcription and, more often, errant translation. It seems to me that the usual appeal is to the original language or the original words (as opposed to the original manuscript) to resolve a difficulty of translation. I am not certain that a large number of difficulties, that is issues of errancy, arise from the different text-types.
We deny that any essential element of the Christian faith is affected by the absence of the autographs. We further deny that this absence renders the assertion of Biblical inerrancy invalid or irrelevant.
Monday, 25 January 2021
Sunday, 24 January 2021
1 Creation of the Universe (Gen 1:1–2:3)
1.1 Introduction of the Creator (Gen 1:1–2)
1.2 The Six Days of Creation (Gen 1:3–31)
1.2.1 Day 1: Light (Gen 1:3–5)
1.2.2 Day 2: The Sky (Gen 1:6–8)
1.2.3 Day 3: The Land and the Plants (Gen 1:9–13)
18.104.22.168 Land (Gen 1:9–10)
22.214.171.124 Plants (Gen 1:11–13)
1.2.4 Day 4: The Luminaries (Gen 1:14–19)
1.2.5 Day 5: Air and Sea Creatures (Gen 1:20–23)
1.2.6 Day 6: Land Creatures (Gen 1:24–31)
126.96.36.199 Creation of Animals (Gen 1:24–25)
188.8.131.52 Creation of Humans (Gen 1:26–28)
184.108.40.206 Plants for Food (1:29–31)
1.3 Conclusion: The Seventh Day (Gen 2:1–3)
Toledoth 1 (Gen 2:4–4:16)
2 The Garden of Eden (Gen 2:4b–2:25)
2.1 Introduction: State of the Land (2:4b–6)
2.2 The Six Stages of Eden (2:7–22)
2.2.1 Creation of Man (Gen 2:7)
2.2.2 God Plants Garden (Gen 2:8)
2.2.3 God Organises Garden (Gen 2:9–15)
220.127.116.11 Trees Grow (2:9–14)
18.104.22.168 Man Placed in Garden (Gen 2:15)
2.2.4 God Commands Man (Gen 2:16–17)
2.2.5 Man is Alone (Gen 2:18)
2.2.6 Search for Companion (Gen 2:19–24)
22.214.171.124 Animals Named (Gen 2:19–20)
126.96.36.199 Man Sleeps (Gen 2:21)
188.8.131.52 Woman Created (Gen 2:22)
2.3 Conclusion: Man and Woman Come Together (Gen 2:23–25)
Friday, 22 January 2021
By the time of Jesus the principle was being misapplied. Men were using it is justify their desire for personal revenge and neglecting the matter of mercy. Ever seeking justice for themselves they failed to realise that what they most needed was forgiveness. If they wanted mercy from God they needed to offer mercy to men.
In our own age that has had 2000 years of Christendom teaching mercy we risk neglecting justice for others. It is true that we need to allow vengeance at God's hand and not pursue personal vendettas, even so, victims require justice, and God has given us his principles for justice.
At its most simple the principle of talion is to require the criminal to receive what he has done. This is restricted to permanent personal damage done intentionally, or at least caused by gross criminal negligence. Thus,
- Remove an eye: lose an eye
- Kill a person: be executed
There are several aspects to the talion. The first is that punishment is limited. Limited to the level at which a crime is performed. If a man is intentionally causing permanent injury to another then the consequence for him can be no greater than the harm caused. If he blinds a man in one eye you cannot blind him in both. If he cuts off a finger you can't cut off an arm. Related to this is the fact that, excepting execution, one cannot be maimed for infractions that do not maim others. A thief is not to have his hand cut off. A voyeur is not to have his eye plucked out.
Certain crimes are still capital offences. Treason, adultery, etc may still require the death penalty but judges are not permitted to maim and mutilate indiscriminately.
A second aspect is that men are to be punished if they give fraudulent evidence that may cause maiming. When a man falsely testifies to something that would lead to damage he is to receive the same,
If a malicious witness arises to accuse a person of wrongdoing, then both parties to the dispute shall appear before the Lord, before the priests and the judges who are in office in those days. The judges shall inquire diligently, and if the witness is a false witness and has accused his brother falsely, then you shall do to him as he had meant to do to his brother. So you shall purge the evil from your midst. And the rest shall hear and fear, and shall never again commit any such evil among you. Your eye shall not pity. It shall be life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot. (Deu 19:16-21)The command that your eye shall not pity may mean that the judge is not permitted to give a lesser punishment or substitute a fine; it is a minimum sentence.
The implications of this principle are striking. Essentially a false accusation incurs the guilt of the crime. A man accusing someone of murder bears the guilt of murder. A woman who falsely claims rape is as guilty as a rapist.
 The only exception appears to be if a woman grabs a man by his testicles during a fight. In this case she was to have her hand cut off and a fine could not be substituted (Deu 25:11-12). One possible explanation is that such behaviour could cause injury to the testicles (such as sterility, the context concerns descendants) so she was to receive a punishment that was appropriate. This would be her hand as females do not have testicles and she used her hand to commit the offence.
Thursday, 21 January 2021
In the Law we see the principle of the talion. Sins against men are addressed by doing to the sinner what he did to another. Eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth. This principle applied to the body. A few maiming or capital punishments could be greater against a criminal in certain circumstances (eg. sexual crimes). But permanent destruction of a man or a part of his body was limited to what he had done to others. An example is in King Adonibezek who had cut off the thumbs and great toes of kings and the same was done unto him (Jug 1:7). He saw this as a punishment from God because of what he had done.
The punishment could exceed this in some circumstances, especially property crimes: A thief pays back more than he stole to act as a deterrent. Further, a man could be flogged for a crime because this did not cause permanent physical destruction of an organ.
The talion acted also limited punishments; it prohibited judges from sentencing excessive punishments.
Jesus speaks against the talion in his Sermon on the Mount. It is worth noting that he is teaching not against what is written, but what the people had be taught. When Jesus refutes his opponents he frequently appeals to Scripture saying, "It is written." The rebuke is in not believing Scripture. If his opponents claim to believe Scripture Jesus shows them how they err in their interpretation. In the Sermon on the Mount Jesus refutes not what is written but what they have been taught. Jesus prefaces his teaching by denying that he is abolishing the Law,
Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them. For truly, I say to you, until heaven and earth pass away, not an iota, not a dot, will pass from the Law until all is accomplished. Therefore whoever relaxes one of the least of these commandments and teaches others to do the same will be called least in the kingdom of heaven, but whoever does them and teaches them will be called great in the kingdom of heaven. (Mat 5:17-19)And then he says,
You have heard that it was said to those of old, ‘You shall not murder; and whoever murders will be liable to judgment.’ (Mat 5:21)And
You have heard that it was said, ‘You shall not commit adultery.’ (Mat 5:27)And
It was also said, ‘Whoever divorces his wife, let him give her a certificate of divorce.’ (Mat 5:31)And
Again you have heard that it was said to those of old, ‘You shall not swear falsely, but shall perform to the Lord what you have sworn.’ (Mat 5:33)These are what they have been taught by the scribes. When Jesus addresses these teachings, which are based in the Torah, Jesus explains what they mean. He explains that murder originates in the heart and that lesser sins such as hatred also violate the law. He explains that adultery can be in the heart. He corrects the teaching they have received on divorce. But consider this teaching,
You have heard that it was said, ‘You shall love your neighbor and hate your enemy.’ (Mat 5:43)Hating your enemies is not an Old Testament quote. He tells them to love their enemies.
When it comes to the talion Jesus says,
You have heard that it was said, ‘An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.’ But I say to you, Do not resist the one who is evil. But if anyone slaps you on the right cheek, turn to him the other also. And if anyone would sue you and take your tunic, let him have your cloak as well. And if anyone forces you to go one mile, go with him two miles. Give to the one who begs from you, and do not refuse the one who would borrow from you. (Mat 5:38-42)Jesus is not abolishing the Law as he has already said, but he is commenting about how they are applying the Law. None of the examples Jesus gives involves actually losing an eye, or a tooth, or one's life. Jesus is speaking against a spirit of retaliation. The talion was given to administer judgment and limit sentences, it was not given to justify our internal desire for revenge. This is what the Pharisees got wrong and why Jesus spoke so sternly to them in other situations. A spirit of revenge works against mercy. It subverts all that God wants to do. It is antagonistic to God's purposes. Punishment is not wrong, and the principle of the talion is not wrong, but if we let revenge take priority in our hearts we oppose what God is doing.
When Adam and Eve sinned in the garden, God pronounced judgment against them. The judgment was severe: they became mortal, they were estranged from God, they had difficulty with children, difficulty between each other, difficulty in their ability to get enough food. And such a judgment was necessary, they now knew good and evil and the depths of depravity the human race was now capable meant that they had to be restrained.
Even so, look at the promise when God curses the serpent.
I will put enmity between you and the woman,The protevangelium contains the promise of deliverance. Even in the curse God is planning to redeem the problem. God does not intend for men to be alienated from him.
and between your offspring and her offspring;
he shall bruise your head,
and you shall bruise his heel.” (Gen 3:15)
Jesus teaches the same thing.
No one after lighting a lamp puts it in a cellar or under a basket, but on a stand, so that those who enter may see the light. Your eye is the lamp of your body. When your eye is healthy, your whole body is full of light, but when it is bad, your body is full of darkness. Therefore be careful lest the light in you be darkness. If then your whole body is full of light, having no part dark, it will be wholly bright, as when a lamp with its rays gives you light. (Luk 11:33-36)When our eye is healthy, or generous, we view things rightly. We need to pay careful attention that we have healthy eyes. Luke writes this within the context of people saying Jesus operates by the power of Beelzebub. He warns them against having an unclean spirit, and he rebukes them for their unbelief. Then following this is a condemnation of the scribes and Pharisees.
Some have argued that Jesus opposes the religious but defends sinners by virtue of his kindness towards tax-collectors and prostitutes but frequent condemnation of the religious men of the day. This misreads what Jesus does and is doing. Jesus befriended sinners because they were lost. The sick need a physician. Yet the sinners we encounter in these verses are repentant sinners. Jesus offers mercy to those who repent. Jesus had a generous eye, one that defeats his enemies by making them his friends. It is this what the Pharisees get so wrong. They load up burdens on men's backs but do not help lift a finger (Mat 23:4).
It is not that mercy is right and justice is wrong, it is that people do not care for mercy which is a higher virtue. Love is above all.
And it is not that being a sinner gets one right with Jesus, it is repentance that matters. Jesus called Herod a fox (Luk 13:32), he warned the paralytic to stop sinning else something worse than paralysis would happen (Joh 5:14). And Jesus was gracious towards many righteous who were not sinners, including some who were Pharisees.
God is about redemption. He is about getting people into his kingdom. The pathway is faith demonstrated by repentance. The harsh words of Jesus against the Pharisees was because they opposed God's purposes which was to enable sinful men and women to repent and be accepted into the kingdom of Heaven. It matters not whether you consider yourself religious or not, what matters is that you have a heart inclined towards mercy.
But this is not a condemnation of justice. Justice remains. It is only in the context of justice that we can understand mercy. The men who refuse to call sin for what it is have neither justice nor mercy. They refuse to see that sin is an affront to God. They offer acceptance without repentance which is not mercy because it leaves people in their sin and outside God's family. They condemn religion while justifying the rebellious. Yet it is the very nature of justice which should make us so cautious.
Judgment will come. Heaven cries out,
her sins are heaped high as heaven,It is the certainty of judgment which men deserve which makes mercy so imperative. Jesus is against men who would refuse the repentant; such an attitude demonstrates that they themselves have not received mercy, that they remain outside the kingdom.
and God has remembered her iniquities.
Pay her back as she herself has paid back others,
and repay her double for her deeds;
mix a double portion for her in the cup she mixed. (Rev 18:5-6)
Jesus said to them, “Truly, I say to you, the tax collectors and the prostitutes go into the kingdom of God before you.” (Mat 21:31).
Monday, 18 January 2021
Saturday, 16 January 2021
The post-exilic chronology. Part 5: Other support for the sequential reconstruction of Ezra-Nehemiah
The table below contrasts the common and the sequential reconstructions. The year is referenced to Cyrus' first year as king over Babylon.
|Jews return to Jerusalem||1||1||Ezr 1|
|Work begins on the temple. Foundation laid.||2||2||Ezr 3|
|Opposition to building||2||2||Ezr 4|
|Letter to Ahasuerus||53–75||?9–16||Ezr 4|
|Letter to Artaxerxes||75–116||?9–17||Ezr 4|
|Darius' 1st year||18||18|
|Temple building resumes (Darius' 2nd year)||19||19||Ezr 6|
|Temple completed (Darius' 6th year)||23||23||Ezr 6|
|Artaxerxes 1st year||75||(18)|
|Ezra returns to Jerusalem||81||24||Ezr 7|
|Nehemiah returns to Jerusalem (Artaxerxes 20th year)||94||37||Neh 2|
|Wall completed||94||?37–49||Neh 6|
|Nehemiah returns to Babylon (Artaxerxes 32nd year)||106||49||Neh 5, 13|
The difference is significant. Note the variable sequences in the two reconstructions and the timeframes varying by up to 50 years. There is also disagreement over the identity of kings.
Other material from Ezra and Nehemiah fit the revised version better. This could also be said about parts of the book of Daniel.
The aspects I wish to cover here are
- The people opposing rebuilding
- The high priest line
- The mention of Darius the Persian
- Daniel's prophecy of the rebuilding
People oppose the rebuilding on more than one occasion. That they are different times is seen by the names of the people conflicting with the Jews. There are different persons who are in opposition to the building or who send letters to the king.
In the time of Artaxerxes (Ezr 4) there is a letter written by Rehum and others objecting to the building of the city. In the 2nd year of Darius (Ezr 6) there is a request by Tattenai concerning Cyrus' decree. And in the 20th year or Artaxerxes—whom I identify as Darius—there is opposition from Sanballat and Tobiah. None of these names overlap which suggests that these are distinct events. This may not count as discriminatory evidence between the 2 reconstructions, though the lack of mention of Sanballat or Tobiah in the letter to Artaxerxes (Ezr 4) suggests that if the common reconstruction is followed, the letter was early in Artaxerxes reign.
|Artaxerxes||Bishlam, Mithredath, Tabeel, and the rest of their associates. Rehum the commander, Shimshai the scribe, and the rest of their associates.||Ezr 4|
|Darius||Tattenai the governor, Shethar-bozenai, and his associates.||Ezr 6|
|Artaxerxes||Sanballat the Horonite and Tobiah the Ammonite servant. Geshem the Arab||Neh 2, 4|
High priest genealogy
The high priest family line is helpful as it may give a rough indication of whether the times proposed by the various reconstructions are feasible. Jeshua (Joshua) son of Jehozadak was the high priest at the time of Ezra's return. Nehemiah gives a list of priests at the time of Zerrubbabel's return which includes Jeshua who returned with Zerubbabel (Erz 2:2). Nehemiah then gives a list of Levites and then he lists Jeshua's descendants.
Jeshua was the father of Joiakim, Joiakim the father of Eliashib, Eliashib the father of Joiada, Joiada the father of Jonathan, and Jonathan the father of Jaddua. (Neh 12:10–11)That is
- Jonathan (?Johanan)
And in the days of Joiakim were priests, heads of fathers’ houses (Ne 12:12)Among the list is Zechariah son of Iddo. Zechariah's first oracle was during the second year of Darius.
Nehemiah then states that
The family heads of the Levites in the days of Eliashib, Joiada, Johanan and Jaddua, as well as those of the priests, were recorded in the reign of Darius the Persian. The family heads among the descendants of Levi up to the time of Johanan son of Eliashib were recorded in the book of the annals. And the leaders of the Levites were Hashabiah, Sherebiah, Jeshua son of Kadmiel, and their associates, who stood opposite them to give praise and thanksgiving, one section responding to the other, as prescribed by David the man of God.
Mattaniah, Bakbukiah, Obadiah, Meshullam, Talmon and Akkub were gatekeepers who guarded the storerooms at the gates. They served in the days of Joiakim son of Joshua, the son of Jozadak, and in the days of Nehemiah the governor and of Ezra the priest, the teacher of the Law. (Neh 12:22–26 NIV).So there was documentation of the Levites in the days of Eliashib and his descendants. And specifically in the Book of the Annals from Eliashib to Johanan.
And the gatekeepers served during the time of Joiakim, Nehemiah, and Ezra.
Further, Eliashib the high priest helped fix the wall in the time of Nehemiah (Neh 3:1).
- Jeshua son of Jehozadak returns with Zerubbabel
- Zechariah son of Iddo is the head of a priestly family during the time of Joiakim
- Zechariah's first oracle is in second year of Darius
- The gatekeepers serve in the days of Joiakim son of Jeshua (Joiakim is possibly the high priest)
- The gatekeepers serve in the time of Ezra
- The gatekeepers serve in the time of Nehemiah
- Eliashib son of Joiakim helps repair the Sheep gate in the time of Nehemiah.
Darius the Persian
In Nehemiah mention is made of Darius the Persian
In the days of Eliashib, Joiada, Johanan, and Jaddua, the Levites were recorded as heads of fathers’ houses; and the priests in the reign of Darius the Persian. (Neh 12:22)
These are the priests and the Levites who came up with Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, and Jeshua: [list of priests]. These were the chiefs of the priests and of their brothers in the days of Jeshua.
And the Levites: [list of Levites].
And Jeshua was the father of Joiakim, Joiakim the father of Eliashib, Eliashib the father of Joiada, Joiada the father of Jonathan, and Jonathan the father of Jaddua.
And in the days of Joiakim were priests, heads of fathers’ houses: [list of priests].
In the days of Eliashib, Joiada, Johanan, and Jaddua, the Levites were recorded as heads of fathers’ houses; and the priests in the reign of Darius the Persian.
The sons of Levi, their heads of fathers’ houses were written in the Book of the Annals until the days of Johanan the son of Eliashib.
The names of the priests are also recorded: the priests in the reign of Darius the Persian.
Then we return to the Levites (and gatekeepers) and what they were doing during the time of Joiakim.
And the heads of the Levites: [list of Levites] to praise and to give thanks... watch by watch. [List of gatekeepers] were gatekeepers standing guard at the storehouses of the gates.
This was during the time of Joiakim, the highpriest during the time of Nehemiah and Ezra.
These were in the days of Joiakim the son of Jeshua son of Jozadak, and in the days of Nehemiah the governor and of Ezra, the priest and scribe.
Daniel's prophecy of the rebuilding
During prayer Gabriel appeared to Daniel and said,
70 sevens are decreed for your people and for your holy city: to finish the transgression and to seal up sin and to atone for guilt and to bring in everlasting righteousness and to seal vision and prophet and to anoint a holy of holies. Now know and understand: from the going out of the word to restore and build Jerusalem until an anointed one, a prince—7 sevens and 62 sevens; it will be built again with streets and a moat, but in troubled times. And after the 62 sevens an anointed one shall be cut off, and he shall have nothing, and the city and the sanctuary will be destroyed by the people of the coming prince, and its end will be with the flood and to the end there shall be war; these desolations are determined. (Dan 9:24-26)
from the going out of the word to restore and build Jerusalem until an anointed one, a prince—7 sevens and 62 sevens; it will be built again with streets and a moat, but in troubled times. And after the 62 sevens...
The first option suggests that the 7 sevens is the time until Jerusalem is rebuilt: that is 49 years, and the anointed one appears after a further 434 years. The second option implies that the anointed one comes after 49 years and Jerusalem would be built in the subsequent 434 years.from the going out of the word to restore and build Jerusalem until an anointed one, a prince—7 sevens. And [during] 62 sevens it will be built again with streets and a moat, but in troubled times. And after the 62 sevens...
Monday, 11 January 2021
Monday, 4 January 2021
Friday, 1 January 2021
Michael Jones of Inspiring Philosophy has posted a video on what he considers the top 10 reasons from the Bible on why young earth creationism cannot be correct. These are biblical arguments on the error of creationism, not purported scientific errors.
His top 10 problems are:
- Genesis 17:17. Abraham's age when he was to father Isaac.
- Genesis 8:5-9. The extent of the Flood.
- Genesis 2:24. Metaphors in the creation account.
- Genesis 3:22. Are humans mortal or immortal?
- Genesis 2:4. Genesis 2 recaps Day 6 of creation.
- Jeremiah 4:23-26. Jeremiah alludes to creation.
- Genesis 1:14. Creation of light before the sun.
- Genesis 1:28. The meaning of subdue and rule.
- The meaning of bara. It does not mean "create out of nothing".
- Genesis 1:1. Earth created or modified.
And God said to Abraham, “As for Sarai your wife, you shall not call her name Sarai, but Sarah shall be her name. I will bless her, and moreover, I will give you a son by her. I will bless her, and she shall become nations; kings of peoples shall come from her.” Then Abraham fell on his face and laughed and said to himself, “Shall a child be born to a man who is a hundred years old? Shall Sarah, who is ninety years old, bear a child?” And Abraham said to God, “Oh that Ishmael might live before you!” God said, “No, but Sarah your wife shall bear you a son, and you shall call his name Isaac. I will establish my covenant with him as an everlasting covenant for his offspring after him. As for Ishmael, I have heard you; behold, I have blessed him and will make him fruitful and multiply him greatly. He shall father twelve princes, and I will make him into a great nation. But I will establish my covenant with Isaac, whom Sarah shall bear to you at this time next year.”
The Lord said, “I will surely return to you about this time next year, and Sarah your wife shall have a son.” And Sarah was listening at the tent door behind him. Now Abraham and Sarah were old, advanced in years. The way of women had ceased to be with Sarah. So Sarah laughed to herself, saying, “After I am worn out, and my lord is old, shall I have pleasure?” The Lord said to Abraham, “Why did Sarah laugh and say, ‘Shall I indeed bear a child, now that I am old?’ Is anything too hard for the Lord? At the appointed time I will return to you, about this time next year, and Sarah shall have a son.” But Sarah denied it, saying, “I did not laugh,” for she was afraid. He said, “No, but you did laugh.” (Gen)
The flood continued forty days on the earth. The waters increased and bore up the ark, and it rose high above the earth. The waters prevailed and increased greatly on the earth, and the ark floated on the face of the waters. And the waters prevailed so mightily on the earth that all the high mountains under the whole heaven were covered. The waters prevailed above the mountains, covering them fifteen cubits deep. (Gen 7:17-20)
God made a wind blow over the earth, and the waters subsided. The fountains of the deep and the windows of the heavens were closed, the rain from the heavens was restrained, and the waters receded from the earth continually. At the end of 150 days the waters had abated, and in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, the ark came to rest on the mountains of Ararat. And the waters continued to abate until the tenth month; in the tenth month, on the first day of the month, the tops of the mountains were seen. (Gen 8:1-5)
But the dove found no place to set her foot, and she returned to him to the ark, for the waters were still on the face of the whole earth. (Gen 8:9)
The water prevailed more and more upon the earth, so that all the high mountains which were under all the heavens were covered. (Gen 7:19 NASB footnote)
Genesis 2:24 says that the man and his wife shall become one flesh which is not literal because they are two beings and not one being. Granted, but the extended passage reads
And the rib that the Lord God had taken from the man he made into a woman and brought her to the man. Then the man said,That the man and woman are two beings suggests that "one flesh" here has a more metaphorical meaning. Which is fine as Scripture has many non-literal readings: metaphors, fables, idioms. Even in Genesis chapters 1 through 3.“This at last is bone of my bones
and flesh of my flesh;
she shall be called Woman,
because she was taken out of Man.”Therefore a man shall leave his father and his mother and hold fast to his wife, and they shall become one flesh. And the man and his wife were both naked and were not ashamed.
- Did God create Adam intrinsically immortal such that he would not die? But God caused him to die after he ate the fruit of knowledge. Or;
- Did God create Adam conditionally immortal such that he would not die if he continued to eat the fruit of life? And then God bared Adam and Eve from the fruit of life so that he would die because he had eaten the fruit of knowledge.
Therefore, just as sin came into the world through one man, and death through sin, and so death spread to all men because all sinned—for sin indeed was in the world before the law was given, but sin is not counted where there is no law. Yet death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those whose sinning was not like the transgression of Adam, who was a type of the one who was to come. (Rom 5:12-14).
For the creation was subjected to futility, not willingly, but because of him who subjected it, in hope that the creation itself will be set free from its bondage to corruption and obtain the freedom of the glory of the children of God. For we know that the whole creation has been groaning together in the pains of childbirth until now. (Rom 8:20-22)
By the sweat of your faceyou shall eat bread,till you return to the ground,for out of it you were taken;for you are dust,and to dust you shall return. (Gen 3:19)
These are the generations of the heavens and the earth when they were created.
When God created man, he made him in the likeness of God. Male and female he created them, and he blessed them and named them Man when they were created. (Gen 5:2)
God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them. And God blessed them. (Gen 1:27-28)
Jesus answered, “Have you not read that he who created them from the beginning made them male and female [Gen 1:27], and said, ‘Therefore a man shall leave his father and his mother and hold fast to his wife, and the two shall become one flesh [Gen 2:24]’? So they are no longer two but one flesh. What therefore God has joined together, let not man separate.” (Mat 19:4-5)
God said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth and subdue it, and have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the heavens and over every living thing that moves on the earth.” And God said, “Behold, I have given you every plant yielding seed that is on the face of all the earth, and every tree with seed in its fruit. You shall have them for food. And to every beast of the earth and to every bird of the heavens and to everything that creeps on the earth, everything that has the breath of life, I have given every green plant for food.” And it was so. And God saw everything that he had made, and behold, it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day. (Gen 1:24-31)
In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth. And the earth was formless and void, and darkness was over the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the surface of the waters. (Gen 1:1-2)
When God created the heavens and the earth the earth was formless and void,...
Let's remember YECs constantly claim theistic evolutionists have to add meaning to the Biblical texts, and they just take the plain reading. Well, in order to deal with the issues I brought up in the video they will have to add meaning to several of the passages I went over.