Tuesday, 2 June 2020

Zayit stone abecedary

In 2005 an abecedary was found on the Zayit Stone at Tel Zayit. It is believed to date from about 1000 BC. Below is the order of letters as inscribed on the stone. I have included the early Hebrew glyphs in the table as they most closely match the stone glyphs. There are some caveats as mentioned below.

Modern order Zayit stone
Order Name square early Latin Name square early Latin Comment
1 Alef 饜‎ Alef 饜‎
2 Bet 饜‎ b Bet 饜‎ b
3 Gimel 饜‎ g Gimel 饜‎ g
4 Dalet 饜‎ d Dalet 饜‎ d
5 He 饜‎ h Waw 饜‎ w
6 Waw 饜‎ w He 饜‎ h
7 Zayin 饜‎ z Het 饜‎ kh
8 Het 饜‎ kh Zayin 饜‎ z
9 Tet 饜‎ t Tet 饜‎ t
10 Yod 饜‎ y Yod 饜‎ y
11 Kaf 饜‎ k Lamed 饜‎ l ?
12 Lamed 饜‎ l Kaf 饜‎ k ?
13 Mem 饜‎ m Mem 饜‎ m
14 Nun 饜‎ n Nun 饜‎ n
15 Samekh 饜‎ s Samekh 饜‎ s
16 Ayin 饜‎ Pe 饜‎ p faint
17 Pe 饜‎ p Ayin 饜‎ faint
18 Tsadi 饜‎ ts Tsadi 饜‎ ts faint
19 Qof 饜‎ q Qof 饜‎ q faint
20 Resh 饜‎ r Resh 饜‎ r faint
21 Shin 饜‎ s Shin 饜‎ s
22 Tav 饜‎ t Tav 饜‎ t faint

  • Letters he and waw are reversed, this has not been seen previously.
  • Letters zayin and het are reversed, this may have been noted elsewhere.
  • Letters kaf and lamed are reversed. The authors believe this to be a mistake because there is a gap following the kaf and what appears to be a cross (X) suggesting an error was made then recognised by the scribe.
  • Letters ayin and pe are reversed. The letters are faint and difficult to see. This inversion has been seen elsewhere.

Tappy et al. An Abecedary of the Mid-Tenth Century B.C.E. from the Judaean Shephelah. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research. 2006.

Friday, 29 May 2020

Early oral tradition about Jesus

It has been said that Paul includes an early oral tradition about Jesus in his first letter to the Corinthians. Paul reiterates in his letter what he had already told them in person
  • That Christ died for our sins in accordance with the Scriptures,
  • And that he was buried,
  • And that he was raised on the third day in accordance with the Scriptures,
  • And that he appeared to Cephas,
  • Then to the twelve,
  • Then he appeared to more than five hundred brothers at one time, most of whom are still alive, though some have fallen asleep,
  • Then he appeared to James,
  • Then to all the apostles. (1 Corinthians 15:3-5)
Paul concludes with his own encounter
Last of all, as to one untimely born, he appeared also to me. For I am the least of the apostles, unworthy to be called an apostle, because I persecuted the church of God.
Paul's encounter is probably his addendum to the prior account. Note also that the parenthetical comment, "most of whom are still alive, though some have fallen asleep," may also be an addition. Some place all of the material from the 500 brothers onward as Paul's addition.

Paul prefaces this list with
For I delivered (paradidomi) to you as of first importance what I also received (paralambano) (1 Corinthians 15)
Apparently the combination of paradidomi with paralambano was understood by a the ancients to mean that the speaker is passing on an oral tradition that has been received from others. I am uncertain as to whether there is an implied expectation in these two words for the hearer to also memorise. The earlier use of this phrase by Paul directly to the Corinthians, and then his repetition in the letter seems to suggest so in this instance.

1 Corinthians was authored in the early 50s. However there are apparently clues that this phrase maybe an oral history originating several years earlier. Paul was writing in Greek though he also knew Hebrew and Aramaic*. The saying as recorded in 1 Corinthians has marks of translation from Hebrew/ Aramaic into Greek as it is written. Paul likely had the saying memorised in Hebrew/ Aramaic and translated it to his secretary.

These clues are possibly the use of the Semitic "Cephas" rather than the Greek "Peter", though Paul does use "Cephas" consistently in 1 Corinthians and uses it more than "Peter" in his other letters. And the construction "And that" (kai hoti), which is the Greek translation of the waw consecutive, a Semitic construction.

So recorded in 1 Corinthians is a very early oral tradition about Jesus that antedates all the New Testament documents probably within a few years of the resurrection of Jesus, in the Hebrew/ Aramaic language.
Christ died for our sins in accordance with the Scriptures,
And that he was buried,
And that he was raised on the third day in accordance with the Scriptures,
And that he appeared to Cephas,
Then to the twelve,
Then he appeared to more than five hundred brothers at one time,
Then he appeared to James,
Then to all the apostles.

*Many scholars suggest that the language in Judea at the time of Christ was Aramaic, a language from Babylon (and Assyria) closely related to Hebrew. Others claim they spoke Hebrew.

Thursday, 28 May 2020

The Word became flesh and dwelt among us

God gives Habakkuk a vision, he says
“Write the vision;
make it plain on tablets,
so he may run who reads it.” (Hab 2:2 ESV)
The last line being difficult to translate: make the vision plain on the tablets:
  • so that it might be read quickly. (LEB)
  • so he may run who reads it. (ESV)
  • so that a herald may run with it. (NIV)
  • so the one who announces it may read it easily. (NET)
  • That the one who reads it may run. (NASB)
more literally
  • so that one who reads in it may run; or
  • it might run reading/proclaiming upon it; or
  • so the one who reads/proclaims it might run; or 
  • so that he running, he reading/proclaiming, from this [tablet]
The NET gives the meaning that it is easy to read such that one can run his eyes through the text. Another interpretation is that it is easy enough to read so that someone can read from the tablet even while he is running. One could paraphrase the last line: so that he can read it while he is running. I side with a person running interpretation which is the meaning given in the ESV and NASB. The ancients usually read out loud so the idea is probably that of one proclaiming, that is a herald as per the NIV.

But note 3 aspects:
“Write the vision;
make it plain on tablets,
so that he who proclaims it may run.”
This describes a message: the vision; a medium: tablets; and a messenger: the person proclaiming. All information has this: content, a carrier medium, and communication (speaking, reading, etc).

Compare John's introduction to his gospel.
And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us. (Joh 1:14)
We have a message: the Word; a medium: flesh (the incarnation); and a messenger: him dwelling with us. Yet Jesus is all these 3 things. Jesus is the message; Jesus is what the message is written on, that is, the incarnation; and Jesus is the messenger.
Jesus stood up and cried out, “If anyone thirsts, let him come to me and drink.” (Joh 7:37).

Tuesday, 26 May 2020

Jude and 2 Peter

The similarities in content between the letters of Jude and 2 Peter are well known.

Further, some dispute that 1 Peter and 2 Peter were written by the same individual due to differences in vocabulary, grammar, and style.

In his Redating the New Testament Robinson makes an argument that Peter's comment about his departure (2Pe 1:15) references a literal departure from a region rather than his impending death. He also notes that Jude takes off from writing another letter to mention other urgent issues (Jud 1:3). Further 2 Peter makes mention of an earlier letter. Johnson argues that if Jude was Peter's agent in writing the letter of 2 Peter then the "I" of 2 Peter 3:1 refers to Jude and not Peter; and the letter Jude left off to write the Epistle of Jude was the letter he was writing for Peter. Consequently he dates both Jude and 2 Peter early and makes 2 Peter antedate 1 Peter!

I think the reconstruction by Robinson is faulty. The ESV translates Jude 1:3 thus,
Beloved, although I was very eager to write to you about our common salvation, I found it necessary to write appealing to you to contend for the faith that was once for all delivered to the saints.
This does not require leaving off another actual letter, rather that the circumstances require that Jude's original topic needs to be deferred by reason of more urgent matters.

Further, Peter's departure is clearly his death,
Therefore I intend always to remind you of these qualities, though you know them and are established in the truth that you have. I think it right, as long as I am in this body, to stir you up by way of reminder, since I know that the putting off of my body will be soon, as our Lord Jesus Christ made clear to me. And I will make every effort so that after my departure you may be able at any time to recall these things. (2Pe 1:12-15)
But if the similarity of style between Jude and 2 Peter remains strong this could have authorship implications. There is clearly similarity of topic such that 2 Peter is dependent on Jude or vice versa (or both dependent on a common source). But there are enough differences to suggest borrowing of concepts rather than a quotation. If the same author wrote both Jude and 2 Peter this would both explain the similarity and allow for the variation of a person writing about the same topic on different occasions.

Assuming this solution, which was written first? It seems to me that the better style would reflect the later version and I will need to defer to Greek readers as to whether Jude or 2 Peter is more polished (at least in the parts of the letters that overlap). If, however, Jude was writing 2 Peter very near the end of Peter's life, were Jude to write a second letter to another church in the months following Peter's martyrdom to warn of the same dangers, he would write in his own name.

Further, Jude's reference to being James' brother means Jude was likely written prior to James' death c. 69*.

Interestingly, Jude is thought to be less likely to be pseudonymous than 2 Peter because why would an anonymous author attach the name "Jude" of all options? Only Jude would use Jude. However, if Jude also wrote 2 Peter as an amanuensis it would increase the authenticity of 2 Peter as Jude had no reason to attach Peter's name unless Peter were the author. Were Jude to falsely add Peter's name to 2 Peter then why would he write a different letter in his own name?

If we accept that Jude was the amanuensis for 2 Peter then he subsequently wrote his letter after Peter's death, then 2 Peter and Jude would be written c. 64†.

*This is dispute concerning when James was put to death. It may have been as early as 62.
†Peter was put to death during Nero's reign 54–68. Exact date is uncertain but c. 64–67.

Monday, 25 May 2020

Thursday, 21 May 2020

Kings of the divided kingdom

When Rehoboam became king of Israel the northern tribes rebelled and followed Jeroboam. The kingdom remained split. The northern kingdom was subsequently exiled to Assyria. The southern kingdom was exiled to Babylon about 150 years later.

The southern kingdom is referred to as Judah and it included the tribe of Benjamin and some of Levi. Through the book of Chronicles it is often referred to as Israel.

The northern kingdom incorporated the other tribes and was referred to as Israel or Ephraim after the largest tribe. Ephraim is a half tribe of Joseph.

# King of Judah King of Israel
1 Rehoboam Jeroboam
2 Abijah Nadab
3 Asa Baasha
4 Jehoshaphat Elah
5 Jehoram Zimri
6 Ahaziah Tibni/ Omri
7 Athaliah Omri
8 Joash Ahab
9 Amaziah Ahaziah
10 Azariah (Uzziah) Joram
11 Jotham Jehu
12 Ahaz Jehoahaz
13 Hezekiah Jehoash
14 Manasseh Jeroboam
15 Amon Zechariah
16 Josiah Shallum
17 Jehoahaz Menahem
18 Jehoiakim Pekahiah
19 Jehoiachin Pekah
20 Zedekiah Hoshea

The list above does note correspond chronologically between Judah and Israel.

Judah had 19 kings. They were all sons or relatives of the previous king. Athaliah the queen mother usurped the throne and declared herself queen.

Israel had 20 (or 19) kings. There were several different dynasties. Note that Tibni and Omri ruled different regions of Israel until Omri defeated Tibni.

Israel lasted ~250 years until exile, Judah lasted ~400 years.

Monday, 18 May 2020

Monday quote

Liberty is the right to choose. Freedom is the result of the right choice.


Friday, 15 May 2020

The Calvinist big 3

Leighton Flowers has written a long post addressing Calvinist proof texts.
Let us begin with “the big three.” Calvinistic apologist, Dr. James White, refers to Ephesians 1, Romans 9 and John 6 as the “classicus locus,” in an article seeking to defend the TULIP systematic. I contend that if any one of these passages did not exist in the canon of scripture that Calvinism would have never even existed.
Of these 3 passages, 2 are by Paul. John’s dialogue is not obviously Calvinist.

The grand theme of both Romans and Ephesians is that the Gentiles are included God’s salvation plans. The kingdom is not restricted to the Jews, it is for everyone. This is the revealed mystery in the last days (Eph 3:6).

But note the irony. Calvinists take a few verses from these books, books about how the kingdom is so much more inclusive and expansive than the Jews ever imagined, and they teach that salvation is restricted to the few that God selectively chooses.

Monday, 11 May 2020

Monday quote

The usual character of human testimony is substantial truth under circumstantial variety.

William Paley (1743–1807).

Monday, 4 May 2020

Monday quote

There are no solutions; there are only trade-offs.

Thomas Sowell

Monday, 27 April 2020

Monday quote

Pertness and ignorance may ask a question in three lines, which it will cost learning and ingenuity thirty pages to answer. When this is done, the same question shall be triumphantly asked again the next year, as if nothing had ever been written upon the subject.

George Horne (1730–1792).

Monday, 20 April 2020

Monday quote

Of all the things that God has made, the human heart is the one that shines brightest—and blackest, alas!

Victor Hugo, Les Mis茅rables

Sunday, 19 April 2020

Passover Feast

John and the synoptic gospels discuss the death and resurrection of Jesus which occurred at the time of the Passover. The chronology around these events can be difficult to work out in part due to the use of the terms Passover, Passover Feast, and Feast of Unleavened Bread.

The Feast of Unleavened Bread was instituted at the time of Passover during the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt. Luke clearly states that the festivals are celebrated together
Now the Feast of Unleavened Bread drew near, which is called the Passover. (Lk 22:1).
Matthew, Mark and Luke clearly state that the Passover Lamb was to be sacrificed on the (first) day of Unleavened Bread (Mat 26:17; Mar 14:12; Luk 22:7). The disciples asked Jesus where they were to eat the Passover during that same day and Jesus instructed them on his plans. The disciples prepared the Passover (Mar 14:16; Luk 22:13) and Jesus ate the Passover meal with his disciples that evening (Mat 26:20; Mar 14:17). This Passover meal that Jesus ate with his disciples became known as the Last Supper.

I have previously discussed the days of crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus. The eating of the Passover with the disciples occurred on Thursday evening after sunset. It is thought that during the first century the Jews started a new day at sunset. This means that the Passover lamb is sacrificed during the day, and the Passover meal occurs after sunset which is the next day.

John uses different terminology to the synoptics. John mentions the Passover (pascha) several times in his gospel, though he never mentions the festival of Unleavened Bread (azymos).

Here are John's uses of the word Passover during Passion Week.
Now the Passover of the Jews was at hand, and many went up from the country to Jerusalem before the Passover to purify themselves. They were looking for Jesus and saying to one another as they stood in the temple, “What do you think? That he will not come to the feast at all?” Now the chief priests and the Pharisees had given orders that if anyone knew where he was, he should let them know, so that they might arrest him.

Six days before the Passover, Jesus therefore came to Bethany, where Lazarus was, whom Jesus had raised from the dead. So they gave a dinner for him there. Martha served, and Lazarus was one of those reclining with him at table. (Joh 11:55–12:2)

Now before the Feast of the Passover, when Jesus knew that his hour had come to depart out of this world to the Father, having loved his own who were in the world, he loved them to the end. During supper, when the devil had already put it into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon’s son, to betray him, Jesus, knowing that the Father had given all things into his hands, and that he had come from God and was going back to God, rose from supper. He laid aside his outer garments, and taking a towel, tied it around his waist. Then he poured water into a basin and began to wash the disciples’ feet and to wipe them with the towel that was wrapped around him. (Joh 13:1–5)

Then they led Jesus from the house of Caiaphas to the governor’s headquarters. It was early morning. They themselves did not enter the governor’s headquarters, so that they would not be defiled, but could eat the Passover. (Joh 18:28)

After he [Pilate] had said this, he went back outside to the Jews and told them, “I find no guilt in him. But you have a custom that I should release one man for you at the Passover. So do you want me to release to you the King of the Jews?” (Joh 18:38–39)

Now it was the day of Preparation of the Passover. It was about the sixth hour. He said to the Jews, “Behold your King!” They cried out, “Away with him, away with him, crucify him!” (Joh 19:14–15)
In describing the Last Supper John says, "Before the Feast of the Passover" (Joh 13:1).  It is not immediately clear what the Feast of the Passover refers to here. John may just mean that Jesus washed his disciples feet before the meal, though it appears that the washing occurred during the meal (Joh 13:4). It is interesting that John adds the word "feast" here. The synoptics referring to the Last Supper just say Passover. John says Passover elsewhere, but he uses the word "feast" in this context: that is they eat the Passover lamb before the feast. This suggests that John is referring to a separate meal.

In Leviticus God lists the feasts for the Israelites. Concerning Passover and Unleavened Bread we read,
In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at twilight, is the LORD’s Passover. And on the fifteenth day of the same month is the Feast of Unleavened Bread to the LORD; for seven days you shall eat unleavened bread. On the first day you shall have a holy convocation; you shall not do any ordinary work. But you shall present a food offering to the LORD for seven days. On the seventh day is a holy convocation; you shall not do any ordinary work.” (Lev 23:5–8).
And in Numbers we read,
On the fourteenth day of the first month is the LORD’s Passover, and on the fifteenth day of this month is a feast. Seven days shall unleavened bread be eaten. On the first day there shall be a holy convocation. You shall not do any ordinary work, but offer a food offering, a burnt offering to the LORD. (Num 28:16–19).
Both Leviticus and Numbers specify a feast on the 15th day which is distinct from the Passover meal. There is a distinction in Leviticus between Passover and Unleavened Bread; yet they are both part of the same festival. Even the phraseology in Numbers several years later has become less distinct than Leviticus.

So it is likely that the Jews of the first century ate the Passover Lamb on the first day and had a feast on the next day, the day after the Passover lamb was eaten. And this latter meal is what John means by the term Passover Feast. This is especially so as the Passover was not a feast. It was a remembrance meal, a meal where God had specified a fixed menu.

At the time of Jesus' crucifixion the Passover meal was eaten on Thursday evening (after sunset) and there was to be a feast on Friday.

Monday, 13 April 2020

Monday quote

Jesus Christ our Lord surrendered in order that He might win; He destroyed His enemies by dying for them and conquered death by allowing death to conquer Him

AW Tozer. Preparing for Jesus' Return: Daily Live the Blessed Hope.

Monday, 6 April 2020

Monday quote

Few of the great tragedies of history were created by the village idiot, and many by the village genius.

Thomas Sowell


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