|Spinning charged ring.|
Current thinking is that matter obeys quantum mechanics at the microscopic level. Quantum mechanics is a moderately effective theory which came about because classical mechanics did not explain phenomena that were observed at the atomic level. These phenomena were, however, interpreted in the context of the model of the atom based on Rutherford's work which showed the mass concentrated in the tiny nucleus at the centre of the atom. Atomic particles were treated as spheres. Thus physical laws that had been established at the macroscopic level were proclaimed not applicable at the microscopic level.
The Bergman elementary particle model and Lucas atomic model state that subatomic particles are rings, rather than spheres, point particles, or wave functions. The rings have a charge that circuits the ring at the speed of light which sets up a magnetic field. The rings are stationary, some electrons are external to the nucleus but do not orbit it, there is no wave function located around the atom. The larger the particle (greater mass) the smaller the ring. Think of a compressed spring: the smaller the spring is compressed the greater the stored energy; and mass and energy are convertible. There are 4 particles: the electron, the positron, the proton, the antiproton. Neutrons are a closely paired proton and electron.
Why a new model? There are several reasons.
- Philosophical issues
- Parsimony and beauty
- Inadequacies of the current model
- Explanatory or predictive power of the new model